C1877

Sheet no. 7 [Mid North / Yunta]

Rare and important detailed map of the mid North of South Australia, covering the country around Yunta homestead by George Goyder (1826-1898), with the following detailed information: Railways, existing marked in narrow blue segment lines. Railways, in course of construction, … Read Full Description

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Details

Full Title:

Sheet no. 7 [Mid North / Yunta]

Date:

C1877

Condition:

In good condition, with centre fold as issued.

Technique:

Lithograph printed in colour.

Paper Size: 

930mm 
x 650mm
AUTHENTICITY
Sheet no. 7 [Mid North / Yunta] - Antique Map from 1877

Genuine antique
dated:

1877

Description:

Rare and important detailed map of the mid North of South Australia, covering the country around Yunta homestead by George Goyder (1826-1898), with the following detailed information:

Railways, existing marked in narrow blue segment lines.
Railways, in course of construction, two narrow blue lines.
Railways recommended to be constructed, space double blue bars

Land Sold and Selected in green
Land held under mineral leases, in cross hatched diagonal blue lines.
Land held under mineral claims, thin blue line

Boundaries of Counties, black bars with alternating dots.
Boundaries of Hundreds black bars

Pastoral Lands are all the untinted areas (except a small area near the northern boundary of South Australia proper).

From Goyder’s, Plan of the southern portion of the province of South Australia: as divided into counties and hundreds, showing the most important settlements, post towns, telegraph stations, main roads, railways, &c compiled from official documents in the Office of the Surveyor General. Adelaide 1877

Collections:
State Library Victoria: RARELTEF 912.942 So8P
State Library New South Wales: Reference code (AuSN)b23940281-61slnsw_inst
State Library South Australia: 912.9423 P699d
National Library Australia: Bib ID 1641997

George Woodroffe Goyder (1826 - 1898)

Goyder joined the Department of Lands in South Australia as chief clerk in January 1853. He rose quickly from second assistant to assistant surveyor-general in January 1857. In April he took charge of an exploration to report on country north of pastoral settlement. He was amazed to find Lake Torrens full of fresh water and its flourishing eastern surroundings very different from the desert described by Edward Eyre in 1839. His exuberant report persuaded the surveyor-general, Captain (Sir) Arthur Freeling, to examine the area in September. No more rain had fallen and hot winds had killed the vegetation and turned the lake into a bed of mud. Freeling returned to criticize Goyder for mistaking flood for permanent water, being misled by mirage and misconceiving the value of the northern country. Although Goyder had proved that Eyre's horseshoe of salt lakes was penetrable and thereby opened the way to further exploration, he was too conscientious to ignore his blunder and in 1859 at his own request he led survey parties to triangulate the country between Lakes Torrens and Eyre and to sink wells. When Freeling resigned Goyder was recalled from the north to become surveyor-general on 19 January 1861 at a salary of £700. Goyder's northern surveys had attracted many large pastoralists who soon demanded modified conditions for their leases. With extra duties as inspector of mines and valuator of runs Goyder went north to classify grazing leases, rents and rights of renewal. In less than twenty months he rode over 20,000 miles (32,186 km), visiting 83 stations and handling his departmental correspondence each night. When his valuations were published the outback lessees complained bitterly and inside pastoralists demanded re-assessment while smallholders and urban anti-squatters condemned any concession to hungry graziers. In this three-sided struggle four ministries rose and fell but Goyder stood firm. In 1865 three commissioners were sent north to reassess rents but found the country in severe drought. In November Goyder was directed to go north and from his own observations to lay down on the map 'the line of demarcation between that portion of the country where the rainfall has extended, and that where the drought prevails'. With a small mounted party he went to Swan Reach on the River Murray and thence north-west to Pekina, east to Melrose and returned through Crystal Brook to Adelaide. A map published in 1866 showed his line of travel with a wing sweeping east from the Murray to the Victorian border and another from Spencer Gulf far to the west. The northernmost point at which crops had not failed was marked as "Goyder's Line of Rainfall" and corresponds approximately to the 300 per millimetre annual rainfall. Goyder recommended that farmers not attempt to farm cereal crops anywhere north of this line. Goyder's Line was first accepted significantly after a number of dry years in 1881–1882 and 1884–1886. Nicknamed 'Little Energy', Goyder was reputed the ablest administrator and most efficient public servant in the colony. A martinet in office hours he won the respect and affection of his subordinates. As 'king of the lands department' he served under 24 different commissioners of crown lands through 34 changes of ministry and helped to amend over 60 Lands Acts. Costs of his department rose from £15,000 in 1861 to £165,000 in 1883 when his power began to wane but in the same time he quadrupled the colony's revenue from land sales and leases. Disgruntled graziers, farmers and miners all charged him with partiality but it was never proved. In fixing rents, boundaries and valuations he was scrupulous and firm, and his rulings were tolerated because of his integrity and honour. In fieldwork his powers of observation were almost uncanny; he brought fortunes to many settlers but remained comparatively poor. He tendered his resignation in 1862, 1873 and 1878 but each time was persuaded to withdraw it by increments to his salary. He was earning £1250 a year when he retired on 30 June 1894 and was then given £4375 in lieu of a pension. In October leading citizens gave him a purse of a thousand sovereigns.

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